INFERTILITY



To begin we have to explain what's infertility ?







Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a person to contribute to conception. Infertility may also refer to the state of a woman who is unable to carry a pregnancy to full term. There are many biological causes of infertility, including some that medical intervention can treat. Infertility has increased by 4 percent since the 1980s, mostly from problems with fecundity due to an increase in age. About 40 percent of the issues involved with infertility are due to the man, another 40 percent due to the woman, and 20 percent result from complications with both partners.



Women who are fertile experience a natural period of fertility before and during ovulation, and they are naturally infertile during the rest of the menstrual cycle. Fertility awareness methods are used to discern when these changes occur by tracking changes in cervical mucus or basal body temperature.






Is infertility a common problem?

Yes. About 10 percent of women (6.1 million) in the United States ages 15-44 have difficulty getting pregnant or staying pregnant, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Is infertility just a woman's problem?



No, infertility is not always a woman's problem. Both women and men can have problems that cause infertility ( men 40 % ,women 40% and both 20% in the united states ). About one-third of infertility cases are caused by women's problems. Another one third of fertility problems are due to the man. The other cases are caused by a mixture of male and female problems or by unknown problems.

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What causes infertility in men?



Infertility in men is most often caused by:
A problem called varicocele (VAIR-ih-koh-seel). This happens when the veins on a man's testicle(s) are too large. This heats the testicles. The heat can affect the number or shape of the sperm.
Movement of the sperm. This may be caused by the shape of the sperm. Sometimes injuries or other damage to the reproductive system block the sperm.

Sometimes a man is born with the problems that affect his sperm. Other times problems start later in life due to illness or injury. For example, cystic fibrosis often causes infertility in men.






What causes female infertility?
The most common causes of female infertility include problems with ovulation, damage to fallopian tubes or uterus, or problems with the cervix. Age can contribute to infertility because as a woman ages, her fertility naturally tends to decrease.

Ovulation problems may be caused by one or more of the following:
A hormone imbalance
A tumor or cyst
Eating disorders such as anorexia or bulimia
Alcohol or drug use
Thyroid gland problems
Excess weight
Stress
Intense exercise that causes a significant loss of body fat
Extremely brief menstrual cycles

Damage to the fallopian tubes or uterus can be caused by one or more of the following:
Pelvic inflammatory disease
A previous infection
Polyps in the uterus
Endometriosis or fibroids
Scar tissue or adhesions
Chronic medical illness
A previous ectopic (tubal) pregnancy
A birth defect
DES syndrome (The medication DES, given to women to preventmiscarriage or premature birth can result in fertility problems for their children.)

Abnormal cervical mucus can also cause infertility. Abnormal cervical mucus can prevent the sperm from reaching the egg or make it more difficult for the sperm to penetrate the egg.